APPI regulates privacy protection in Japan as well as activities of the Personal Information Protection Commission (PPC), a central agency that acts as a supervisory governmental organization on issues of privacy protection. APPI was initially enforced in 2003 and has since been amended twice—once in 2015 and the latest version went into effect in 2022. This recent amendment focuses on improving transparency between organizations that mine data and Japan’s citizens. APPI provisions dictate that the law be reviewed and updated every three years to accommodate the latest developments and maintain relevancy.
The 2022 update brought with it the establishment of the Personal Information Protection Commission (PPC), an independent agency that, among others, protects the rights and interests of individuals and promotes the proper and effective use of personal information. Japan also became the first country to earn an adequacy decision from the European Union, since APPI comes very close to their General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). APPI levies ¥100 million (roughly $815,000 USD) in non-compliance penalties. Organizations and individuals found guilty can also face imprisonment of up to a year.